The Gender Divide in Japan- No Boys allowed?

If you have done any travel in Japan, you will, most likely, have encountered special “Women-only train carriages”. This usually makes for an amusing story to tell your friends, about how you rushed onto a train as the doors were closing, only to find yourself surrounded by confused, and occasionally irate, women. However, the reasons behind the special carriages are not as amusing.

At first glance, the problem seems to have started with widespread reports of groping on trains. The Metropolitan Police Department reported a rise in cases of groping or obscene conduct.

One explanation for the increase of reported offences is not that they are becoming more common, but that they are much easier to report. Since most people carry a phone, capable of taking pictures and videos, it is becoming easier and easier to report crimes. However, as the problem was gaining a lot of attention, the authorities decided to implement a new strategy, which, in my opinion, is a mistake: female only train carriages.

Women_only_train_car_tokyo

But first, let’s look at some reactions from Japanese women. Aside from the feeling of greater security, some women enjoy the lack of typically male smells and the ability to talk with friends without being judged. However, the measure has not been without controversy. Many mothers complain about being separated from their junior high-aged sons since, apparently, as soon as a boy becomes a teenager, he qualifies as a potential sex pest. Some women also worry that should they ride in a mixed carriage, even if they are with male friends, they will be seen as a ‘willing victim’ for sexual advances.

Most male commuters also object to being crammed against fellow sweaty salary men while women ride in comfort. And I’m serious about being “crammed in”, check out this video of the Tokyo Subway.

Unfortunately for modern society, the policy on trains has now spread to other public areas. The reasoning is more acceptable in some cases, such as segregated sleeping-cafés or hostel dormitories. However, gender-separation in other venues has provoked accusations of discrimination.

In the Taito City Library in Tokyo, 10 of the 50 seats are reserved solely for women, while a co-ed university in Saitama Prefecture has a women only café. Discounts for women on restaurant and bar menus or cinema tickets are common, and exclusively female gyms, hotels and bars can be found.

Japanese lawyer, Yukata Iwaki argues that this runs the “risk of breaching the laws of equality”. It should be clear to everybody that maligning all men as potential sex-pests creates an unhealthy environment for modern gender relations.

The legal system in Japan offers little comfort either. 95% of people arrested in Japan sign confessions, and Japanese courts convict 99.9% of those who appear before them. Thus, when men stand accused of sexual crimes in an already suspicious climate, it threatens to ruin their lives regardless of veracity. There have been numerous cases of people being falsely accused and imprisoned.

The recent case of Iwao Hakamada highlights how the Japanese police can use force, or fabricate evidence to achieve a confession, and once the confession is signed, conviction is a sure thing. Hakamade was sentenced to death, and spent 45 years on death row until eventually the evidence against him was proven to be insufficient, incorrect or in some cases, wholly fabricated. Incidences of suicide following false accusations of groping have also been reported, such as the case of Shinsuke Harada in 2010.

In fact, the legal situation is so skewed, that Tokyo lawyer Takashi Nozawa advises against claiming innocence in court. He even suggests that the best way to avoid conviction is for accused men to simply flee the scene and not report the incident to police. Opponents of female-priority policy argue that it promotes an anti-social atmosphere in which women are assumed to be unsafe around men. This atmosphere could prove toxic to modern gender dynamics.

 womenonly

The operation of the segregated trains ultimately relies on the cooperation and discretion of male passengers: it is not a legally enforceable rule as it breaches equality laws. Female-only spaces are but of company request. If a man goes into one of these carriages, the most he will get are some angry stares, or a request to move to the cramped mixed carriage. That said, continuing to vilify men in this way will not lessen the gap between the genders, but reinforce the idea that the genders are different and should be treated differently.

 

 For further reading check these stories out:

Colin Joyce, ‘Persistent gropers force Japan to introduce women-only carriages’.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/japan/1490059/Persistent-gropers-force-Japan-to-introduce-women-only-carriages.html

Andrew Miller, ‘Has preferential treatment for women gone too far in Japan?’.

http://en.rocketnews24.com/2013/07/20/has-japans-preferential-treatment-of-women-gone-too-far/

John Stuart, ‘Guilty and never proven innocent – every male train rider’s nightmare in Japan’.

 http://en.rocketnews24.com/2013/05/14/guilty-and-never-proven-innocent-every-male-train-riders-nightmare-in-japan/

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Gender divide in Japan- Women in the workplace

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In what will be a short series of articles on the Gender Divide in Japan, I decided to start with the difficulties faced by women in Japan, specifically in regards to the workplace.

political-cartoon-gender-gap-wages

Now, I wouldn’t classify Japan as a “sexist country” per se. However, there is a massive gender divide here, and this division between the sexes can, and sometimes does, breed serious sexist attitudes, especially amongst more conservative people.

In a news story that broke a few days ago, it was shown that a member of the Tokyo city assembly was subjected to sexist heckling when trying to debate the topic of social support for child-rearing women.

Ayaka Shiomura, a 35-year old member of the opposition party “Your Party”, was subjected to heckling from members of the conservative and nationalist LDP. The Liberal Democratic Party is Japan’s ruling political party, and members were reported to have shouted things like “Why don’t you get married?” or “Are you unable to have a baby” at Shiomura.

The city assembly has 127 members, of whom a mere 25 are women, furthermore, in the National Assembly there are 722 members, of whom just 78 are women. Japanese Prime Minister, Shinzo Abe, has pledged to increase the numbers of female participants in politics to 30% by 2020, but seeing as it is his party which seems to be part of the problem, it is unknown if he will be able to make good on this promise.

really_good_careers

In Japan, 70% of women quit their job after having their first child. The problem of forcing women out of jobs when they have children, or get too old, is visible in all levels of Japanese society, from members of the political class to humble office workers.

Indeed, many offices in Japan have an office lady, or shokuba no hana (flower girl). These flower girls are kept in the office to perform menial tasks like copying reports or serving tea. Like the flowers they are named after, the women are expected, and indeed encouraged, to retire in their late twenties. The Japanese believe that a person should get married by the age of 30, and a married office lady is a bad thing in Japan, with many being praised for the youth and liveliness they bring to the office.

lets-reduce-the-gender-gap-copy-1

There is a joke in Japan, that women are like Christmas cakes, since after the 25th, nobody wants them anymore, unfortunately for the office ladies, they fall into this category.

Even women who are not in the employment pool find it difficult to receive support, especially in the city of Osaka. The Osaka Welfare Bureau has been investigated for insensitivity and sexual harassment after complaints were made against staff there.

One woman, after being refused five times, was told to try to get a job at a “soapland” (a “massage” parlor which is, in reality, a brothel). Other people who were recovering from cancer treatments or other medical issues sought assistance at the bureau, but found their applications for assistance rejected, and instead received the advice to just “get a job”, along with a booklet of job-hunting tips. Luckily, there is an investigation in progress to examine how to lessen the restrictions on support services.

jobs

I’ll close with some cold hard figures about gender inequality in Japan, from the 2013 Global Gender Gap Report. The report assesses countries around the world for gender equality and ranks them on a scale of 1-4, with 1 being “most equal” and 4 being “least equal”.

Japan was ranked 3 in education, 4 in economic participation, 4 in political empowerment, and 4 in “overall gap”. All this means that Prime Minister Abe has a tough road ahead of him.

 

 

Next, I’ll talk about the issues that the gender divide causes for men, and later, how closing the gender gap can benefit Japan, but before that, I think this blog needs another fun post…

Golden week and Some problems in Japanese workplaces

(since this turned into a bit of a serious topic, I included sources to where I got the information)

Whew, I just had a busy fortnight! First, my sister and her boyfriend come over to visit for a few days (I’ll write about them on Friday), then I headed off to Korea for a week.

Anyway, I’m back now, and ready to start writing again, and since it’s Wednesday, that means it’s time for a look at Japanese culture, from an outsider’s perspective. This week: Golden Week and (some) Japanese Workplace Environments.

Golden Week is the name given to the group of holidays surrounding the end of April and the start of May (April 29th, May 3rd,4th,5th). These four days, which often line up with weekends, give the single longest period of days off for many Japanese workers.

Most, will take some of their annual leave during this time, to make an enormous holiday. I, for example, used five days of leave, and got a total of 12 days off in a row.

During Golden Week, it seems as though everyone in Japan is travelling from one place to another. Shops are constantly busy, subway stations are filled with visitors, whose faces are glued to maps, and ‘greasy spoon’ restaurants, which previously only saw business from revellers on a night out, now have lines around the corner.

Golden Week is a time of revels in Japan, with most towns putting on small festivals of markets. It is also very important for people’s well-being, considering how hard many Japanese people work. Many Japanese workers avoid taking their paid vacation, and will work extra (unpaid) hours to show dedication to their job. Which brings me to the second part of the post:

 

—SOME BAD JAPANESE WORKPLACE PRACTICES

(and I’d like to stress that this only concerns SOME workplaces)

I, like many foreign workers in Japan, leave my school’s staff-room exactly as my work-day finishes. My fellow teachers officially finish at 16:30, yet many of them will stay much, much longer than that.

The teacher who sits next to me, admitted that she frequently stays in the office until as late as 21:00! When asked about why they stay so late, many of my co-workers say that they have a lot of work to do, and they don’t want to let their students down and that they need to make up the time by working after hours.

And this really is ‘after hours’ work, as it is usually unpaid. That’s right, teachers can work up to, or over, 20 hours of unpaid overtime a week. The reason behind this is mainly down to the vagaries of Japanese culture, specifically, , (wa) or ‘harmony’ in the workplace. (1)

 

 

—HARMONY

The ideal harmonious Japanese work environment is one of peaceful unity and conformity. In this ideal workplace, all workers are friendly, get their work done on time, and most importantly, they work as a team. Team work is so important that if a worker cannot get their work done during their hours, they make up the slack after hours, to avoid letting their co-workers down. If they finish ahead of time, there is also a large amount of pressure not to leave ahead of your own superior, or risk looking like they don’t really care about the team.

So, if a worker were to finish all their assigned work ahead of time, they may find themselves creating ‘busy work’ or stretching out an easy task in order to seem like they are working hard during these extra hours.

The online newspaper, Japan Today, conducted a survey as to why its readers felt that Japanese people worked so many hours. The results were varied, with reasons ranging from company loyalty to low productivity and stretched out tasks to fear of disturbing the status quo, and not doing what is expected of them will result in disciplinary actions. (3)

 

 

—BLACK COMPANIES

There are companies in Japan that flagrantly ignore the regulations set in place to protect workers from abuses. These companies have been given the nickname ‘Black Companies’. A survey in December, reported that of the 5,111 companies surveyed, 82%, or 4,189 of them were clearly violating labor laws or engaging in illegal business practices. Workers were often forced to work extra hours by receiving disapproval from co-workers, finding themselves passed over for advancement, or not having their contracts renewed if they were not seen to be devoting themselves to the company. (4)

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare intends to publish the names of the companies in question, if they fail to clean up their acts. Yet, with so many companies in clear violation of the laws, it is unlikely that such a small measure will have an effect. The Ministry will need to implement harsher penalties to the Black Companies if they want to see any changes. This is especially true, with the ever increasing number of young people leaving the workplace, or worse, suffering from 過労死, or karoshi (4)

 

 

—KAROSHI

Karoshi roughly translates as ‘death from overwork’, and it is somewhat ominous that Japanese has a specific word for this tragic circumstance. An extreme example of this would be the Watami Food Service Company, which hired a new female employee, and, according to an investigator, forced her to work more than 140 hours of overtime a month. Tragically, the woman committed suicide after enduring two months of such an oppressive work-environment. (2)

Karoshi is a terrible thing, and is one of the reasons attributed to Japan’s extremely high suicide rate. Lower level employees are de-humanized by the faceless companies and feel alienated, as though they have nothing to live for but work. (1,2)

 

 

—RELIEF EFFORTS

About a month ago, my school’s Vice-Principal made an announcement during the morning meeting on a Friday. I didn’t catch everything, but I heard a reference to the upcoming three day weekend. Of course, this made me fear for my day off, so I made a bee-line for the nearest English teacher. It turns out that he was actually saying that the staff-room would be locked at 6pm, and would stay locked for the whole weekend. That’s good, right?

The teacher did not think so. He said he had work to do, and by forcing him to leave the office, he would have to work at home. This is by no means a once-off thing. Many companies have introduced similar practices, to try to force people to take time off. This has been met with mixed results, including reports of workers pretending to go home, and then sneaking back into their office to work in the dark. Despite this, and resistance from other areas, these ‘go home’ days, are becoming more common, especially in the wake of the survey.

Of course, this is just like putting a band-aid on a serious wound. Sure it’s a good idea, and it’s a step in the right direction, but a lot more is needed. A lot of people, especially in the survey already mentioned, believe that such a major social change is next to impossible to achieve in Japan. They believe that the strict social hierarchies will prevent lower level employees from being able to take advantage of the new rules and regulations. (3)

 

 

 

 

1http://www.japanintercultural.com/en/news/default.aspx?newsid=123

2http://en.rocketnews24.com/2013/08/26/five-things-thatkeep-japanese-people-chained-to-their-jobs/

3http://www.japantoday.com/category/have-your-say/view/why-do-japanese-work-such-long-hours

4http://www.japantoday.com/category/crime/view/80-ofblack-companies-guilty-of-illegal-business-practices-surveyfinds


Whaling in Japan

Whaling on trial

Whaling on trial

Once, a few months back, I was invited to a teacher’s house, and was served a very special kind of fish. Upon eating it, the teacher eagerly told me  that I had just eaten whale, possibly hoping to get a reaction from me.

He was disappointed. I personally have no problem with the idea of Japanese people eating whale or dolphin meat. This may make me unpopular, but I don’t believe that any group of people should be able to tell another nation or group of people what they can and cannot do in their own territory.

Whale sushi and sashimi doesn't taste that bad...

Whale sushi and sashimi doesn’t taste that bad…

I would call groups of people who behave in such a manner terrorists (or at least extremists), because they use force and intimidation to persuade others to adopt their beliefs. No matter how noble the intents of Sea Shepherd and other groups like them may be, they don’t have the right to impose their values on other people.

Sea Shepherd’s founder, Paul Watson, spent fifteen months evading authorities at sea, after he fled courts in Germany and had an Interpol Red Notice placed on him. Thankfully, many of Sea Shepherd’s supporters and members do not fully support the drastic measures taken by this small minority.

In December, a Japanese whaling fleet left Shimonoseki for the Antarctic Ocean 4. The hunt is went on until March, and the fleet hoped to catch roughly one thousand minke whales.

The stated purpose of this hunt was scientific research, however, the majority of the meat usually ends up being processed and sold to markets and stores.

Whale meat in stores

Whale meat in stores

The Japanese government is quick to defend the tradition, saying that whaling is a part of Japan’s culinary heritage, and that the hunt is done with research and sustainability in mind.

Recently however, the hunts have been encountering problems, reporting a catch of only 103 whales last year. This last hunt was a bigger success, with about 250 whales caught, but that’s still only around a quarter of their goal.

Whales for processing

Arguments surrounding the issue revolve mainly around the twin points of sustainability and sovereignty. The pro-whaling side insists that they are practising sustainable whaling, and that any attempt to interfere with them is a violation of their national sovereignty. The anti-whaling side maintains that there is no such thing as sustainable whaling, and that whales may unknowingly
stray from protected areas into whaling areas.

Regardless of the arguments, the whaling industry—in Japan at least—is facing a serious decline in popularity. In fact, the industry relies on subsidies from the Japanese government to remain afloat. In 2012, those subsidies reached 2.28 billion yen

In modern Japan, with fiscal belts being tightened and Tohoku Earthquake recovery efforts taking top priority, the whaling industry may find itself dead in the water without government funds.

On March 31st, the UN International Court of Justice in The Hague declared the Japanese Whale Research Program(JARPA II) illegal. The decision was made to “revoke any extant authorization, permit or license…and refrain from granting further permits” to carry out annual whale hunts in the Antarctic. Despite global criticism, Japan’s fleet carried out annual whale hunts taking advantage of a loophole within international that permits the killing of whales for scientific research. The sitting judge, Peter Tomka, said that the Japanese program resulted in the killing of thousands of minke whales and a number of fin whales, but that its “scientific output to date appears limited”

The issue initially earned global criticism when Animal Planet introduced “Whale Wars,” which followed Sea Shepherd USA, a branch of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, and its attempts to deter the Japanese fleets, through violence if necessary, from hunting whales. The Institute of Cetacean Research initially stated its disappointment, but that it would respect the ruling.

However, on April 11th, the institute stated that they intend to hunt whales in the Antarctic for the 2015-2016 season under a newly designed research program.

Government ministers eating whale

Government ministers eating whale

In the end, though, it appears as though whaling industries will collapse, not because of international sanctions, or action by a small group of activists, but because of a lack of demand. The times of London recently reported that there were over 2,700 tons of uneaten whale meat left in storage last year. Such is the way of the world; old ways often sink into the background and disappear. So if you don’t support whaling, simply don’t support it. Without money, it will fade—not with a bang, but with a whimper.